Urban Sprawl-رایتینگ تسک ۲ آزمون آیلتس

Urban Sprawl-رایتینگ تسک ۲ آزمون آیلتس

موضوع  Urban Sprawling در رایتینگ تسک 2 آزمون آیلتس (IELTS)

قبل از خواندن این مقاله توصیه می‌کنم نکات و قوانین اولیه رایتینگ تسک ۲ آزمون آیلتس را در این لینک بخوانید. از مشکلات محیط زیستی که در رایتینگ تسک 2 آزمون آیلتس ممکن است با آن مواجه شوید، یکی مربوط به Urban Sprawl است. گسترش بی‌رویه شهری اساساً یک مترادف برای شهرسازی(urbanization) است. این اصطلاح به مهاجرت مردم از شهرها و شهرکهای پرجمعیت به مناطق روستایی یا حومه شهری کم‌جمعیت اشاره دارد. نتیجه نهایی گسترش بی‌رویه شهری و حومه بر روی زمین‌های روستایی بیشتر و بیشتر است. به عبارت دیگر، Urban Sprawl به‌عنوان توسعه اقتصادی مسکونی و تجاری بر زمین‌های توسعه نیافته تعریف شده است. اغلب اوقات مردم از این مناطق نقل مکان می‌کنند تا مناطق بهتری را برای زندگی‌کردن پیدا کنند. مهاجرت و ترویج شهری چیزی است که در حال حاضر محبوبیت پیدا کرده است. شهرها و حومه‌های آن‌ها در حال حاضر به‌ این دلیل افزایش می‌یابند، اما اکنون وقت آن رسیده است تا به علل و تأثیرات گسترش شهرها نگاهی بیندازیم تا بتوانیم درک درستی از آن داشته باشیم.

موضوع  Urban Sprawling در رایتینگ تسک 2 آزمون آیلتس (IELTS)

در این مقاله به 7 علت و 5 تاثیر و 4 راه‌حل مقابله با رشد بی‌رویه شهری نگاهی می‌اندازیم. در اکثر Essay Question های تسک دوم رایتینگ آیلتس (IELTS)، وقتی سوالی مربوط به ترافیک شهری و بین شهری، آلودگی هوا، ساخت و ساز و آسیب آن‌ها به محیط زیست است، ریشه بحث در اصل به سه مقوله  ,Urban Sprawling traffic congestion و overpopulation  برمی‌گردد. در این نوع سوالات شما باید دربارۀ علت، تاثیر و راه‌حل مقابله با این مشکلات دنیای مدرن صحبت کنید. در این لینک چند نمونه از سوالات مربوط به این موضوع را پیدا می‌کنید.

در درس‌های 35و49 کتاب Collocations in Use Advanced، شما می‌توانید اصطلاحات مربوط به problems را پیدا کنید. همچنین در درس 32 همین کتاب که عنوانش Town and Country Life است، می‌توانید اصطلاحات مربوط به زندگی شهری و روستایی را پیدا کنید. سعی کنید این اصطلاحات را بخوانید و حفظ کنید چون یکی از 5 سبک‌های سوالات مربوط به problem and solution است. بیایید نگاهی به علت و تاثیرات گسترش بی‌رویه شهری بیاندازیم و یک سمپل رایتینگ تسک ۲ آزمون آیلتس را بنویسیم.

Before starting to write, in IELTS Writing Task 2, it is very important to do brainstorming, then write an outline for each paragraph. To brainstorm, you should have ideas which do not pop out of nowhere. Therefore, in some sections in IELTS, you are supposed to have some general knowledge of the world around you and urban sprawling, overpopulation and traffic congestion are some of them. In this article, first, we have a look at urban sprawl topic. There are different causes that contribute to urban sprawl, some of which are:

  • lower land ratesin western countries, it has become cheaper to live in outer suburbs because people don’t find it comfortable to live in urban areas as the cost of living has been growing higher. As to our own country, Iran, people prefer living in cities like Tehran because there are a variety of job opportunities. Day by day, Tehran sprawls and population grows exponentially which in turn results in more and more cars on the roads and highways and emergence of factories which pose a great threat to Tehran dweller’s respiratory system. Some people find it cheaper to rent houses in the suburbs or smaller cities near Tehran, like Karaj city. There is always a great deal of traffic congestion on Tehran-Karaj roads and people’s time is wasted on the roads commuting.
  • Improved facilities, services and infrastructuredue to the emergence of highways after the 50s and 60s, a lot of people find it easier to drive to and back. Therefore, cities have stretched to the county side as people prefer the rustic charm after a day of undergoing the hectic pace of life and work in the cities.
  • Increase in standard of livingmaking more money means a rise in living standards. When people have more money, they can afford traveling to work and back home.
  • Poor urban planningPeople are fond of living in areas where peace and quietude can be found, places that are devoid of traffic. Therefore, it leads to the further sprawl of cities. Clearing green areas, cutting trees, traffic gridlock might be the reasons why would rather move to suburbs.
  • Paying lower taxpeople usually pay higher property taxes in cities which can be avoided if they dwell in the suburbs.
  • Increase of populationthe more the population grows, the more local communities continue to stretch toward the other areas in cities like the suburb
  • Consumer preferencesThose who earn a lot of money are inclined toward buying big houses or mansions with several bedrooms, bigger yards, gardens or lawns. Such options are scarcely found in bigger cities. Rich people seek peaceful and desirable places to live; places like leafy suburbs where the soothing gurgling sound of river mingles with bird songs.

 

Some of the Effects of Urban Sprawl

  • Rise in public expenditure: urban sprawl is not without its costs which are paid by tax payers.
  • Rise in trafficpeople living in the suburbs have to use cars to go to cities and back. More cars on the road results in more traffic, thus much air pollution and more auto accidents.
  • Health issuespeople living in the suburbs must use their cars to reach, say, shops to do their shopping and low physical activity makes them overweight and a variety of diseases will emerge.
  • Environmental issues: to build houses and roads means some wild lives will be endangered. Cutting down trees means releasing the captured CO2 in trees. More traffic on the road also means more Co2 in the atmosphere which leads to global warming.
  • Negative impact on social lives: It might not apply to the majority of people, but some people in the suburbs may not have neighbors because they do not live close to each other and it might make people less social. To have a sense of belonging means a lot to human beings, and not being able to participate in social communities might have adverse psychological effects like alienation and loneliness.

 

Solutions for urban Sprawl

  • Educating peopleLack of education is one of the biggest contributors of urban sprawl. If people have enough knowledge of the adverse effects of urban sprawl, they might feel the responsibility to take measures against this development.
  • Redeveloping Older towns in CitiesRather than creating newer and newer towns which result in urban sprawl, focusing more on the existing neighborhood by cleaning up the lands that are contaminated and driving the investments more to these areas can be persuasive enough to bring people back. Private companies and the city governments can cooperate to convince people through tax incentives and various facilities and services such as bank institutions offering special mortgages for those who are willing to return back to the revitalized towns.
  • Creating a Sense of BelongingIf facilities and services are built in neighborhoods rather than in isolated places, they will create a sense of belonging and community because the need to drive to long destinations will be reduced.
  • Better Public Transportationinjecting more investment in environmentally-friendly public transportation such as buses and light rail can contribute to the reduction of traffic congestion from downtown to sprawl areas.

 

سمپل رایتینگ تسک ۲ آزمون آیلتس

IELTS Writing Task 2 Sample

 

One body paragraph sample answer to the first question

An aspiration for high standards in life is why cities have been sprawling, thus growing in size. A rustic charm away from the hustle and bustle of cities has become everyone’s desire. Another reason why cities have been enlarged is due to the emergence of highways after the 50s and 60s. Commuting to work and back home through highways means not paying city taxes by living in the suburbs. Therefore, living in big but cheap houses has incited a lot of city-dwellers to opt for a suburban home but a city life which has not been without its negative effects.

در مقالات بعدی به مسائل مربوط به overpopulation و traffic congestion نگاه عمیق‌تری می‌اندازیم تا با استفاده از موضوع city sprawl جواب‌های دقیق‌تر و باجزئیات‌تری به سوالات مطرح‌شده رایتینگ تسک ۲ آزمون آیلتس بدهیم.

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